If you’ve ever been diagnosed with colon cancer, you probably know how devastating it can be. It’s also one of the most common types of cancer, but how do you know what stage you have? Here’s a guide to colorectal cancer diagnosis and treatment. In this comprehensive guide, we’ll explore prevention, treatment, and research. And, we’ll discuss screening and prevention.
Screening for colorectal cancer
The US Preventive Services Task Force has recommended an increase in colorectal cancer screening rates, beginning in 2022. The new measure will assess the health status of individuals aged 50 to 75 years. Screening for colorectal cancer will provide a small reduction in death rates, according to the Task Force’s recommendations. Those who undergo the test once a year will experience a modest decrease in mortality.
Colorectal cancer is often the result of adenomatous polyps that progress to cancer. About 30 percent of men and 20 percent of women develop adenomatous polyps at some point. Colon polyps must be biopsied to determine their pathology, which may not be cancerous. Unfortunately, it is impossible to distinguish between hyperplastic polyps and cancerous tumors unless a biopsy is performed. Screening tests are improving early diagnosis and preventing cancer.
Despite this change, the United States Preventive Services Task Force recommends screening for colorectal cancer in people ages 45 and above. In addition, screening for colon cancer is recommended for those at increased risk for the disease, such as those with Lynch syndrome, familial adenomatous polyposis, and inflammatory bowel disease. It also recommends that people who have a family history of polyps should be screened, no matter their age.
The number of people affected by colorectal cancer is expected to double globally by the year 2022. According to the International Agency for Research on Cancer, the number of new cases of colorectal cancer will surpass two million annually. Screening will reduce the death rate of this cancer. To raise awareness about this disease and its prevention, the World Health Organization has designated March as Colorectal Cancer Awareness Month.
The Colorectal Cancer Screening Market is expected to heat up during the year 2022. Three pivotal trials are expected to be published this year, and liquid biopsies in development by Freenome and Guardant Health will present a competitive challenge to the Cologuard stool DNA test developed by Exact Sciences and Guardant Health. These two technologies aim to challenge the invasive colonoscopy.
Colon cancer can recur after treatment. It can recur in the same organ or in a different part of the body. The cancer spreads to distant locations, such as the lungs, bones, and lymph nodes, and cannot be treated by surgery. If this occurs, the cancer is called metastatic. Treatment options for colon cancer in 2022 are still being tested, but there are some exciting advancements on the horizon.
The current standard of care for patients with advanced colorectal cancer is chemotherapy. However, this treatment has significant side effects, such as fatigue, diarrhea, and nerve damage. That’s why many experts limit the number of cycles patients receive of this chemotherapy. They also advise that patients limit their use to three or four cycles. The patient should discuss the benefits and risks of each option with their doctor. Treatment options for colon cancer in 2022 are still evolving, but there are some key considerations to consider.
While the incidence of colon cancer is increasing among the young, screening for early detection is still recommended. Advancements in genetic testing can identify patients with a high risk of developing colorectal cancer and may lead to significant improvements in long-term survival. Recent studies have shown that cancer screening for patients at age 45 could lead to a higher rate of cure, and circulating tumor DNA may be used as a screening tool.
Two new anti-EGFR agents are on the horizon. Ramucirumab and Ziv-aflibercept are drugs that target the PD-1 receptor in tumor cells. Both drugs can be combined with chemotherapy or targeted therapy. If these two therapies prove to be effective, they are expected to replace chemotherapy and nivolumab. In addition, other drugs like dostarlimab may also be approved in the next decade.
The current treatment options for colon cancer depend on the stage and location of the tumor. Surgery is the primary treatment for colorectal cancer, but other treatments may also be recommended. A polypectomy, for example, is a procedure in which a doctor removes a polyp that has formed on the colon. Endoscopic mucosal resection is another procedure in which the cancerous tissue is removed.
The United States Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) has announced a new screening age for adults with an average risk of colon cancer: 45. This new age is lower than that of previous guidelines, which recommended screening at the age of 50. If a colonoscopy shows anything suspicious, a follow-up procedure will be required. During this procedure, a flexible tube with a camera is passed down the colon. It may reveal polyps, which the doctor can remove.
In Canada, more than 13,500 men and 10,800 women will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer this year. In addition, approximately 4,200 women will die of the disease. That means that colorectal cancer will kill approximately 67 Canadians each day. Despite this high death rate, the rate of new colorectal cancer diagnoses has decreased in recent years. Researchers believe this is due to the fact that earlier detection is more effective than ever.
Currently, the majority of colon cancer patients are 50 and older. However, new cases of colorectal cancer are rising among younger people. The disease is more common among African-Americans than in other races. Additionally, people with inflammatory bowel disease are at an increased risk of developing colon cancer. Prevention of colorectal cancer is critical in all stages, from early detection to treatment. This new report highlights the importance of a healthy lifestyle and a well-maintained colon.
Although colorectal cancer is a complex disease, many factors can decrease the risk. A healthy weight and regular physical activity can reduce the risk of colon cancer. Limiting alcohol consumption and tobacco use can also decrease your risk. It is recommended to limit alcohol intake and quit smoking, which are both known risk factors for colorectal cancer. If you have a family history of colorectal cancer, the U.S. National Cancer Institute offers information and tools on colorectal cancer.
In addition to improving your diet and getting regular screenings, you should also exercise to keep your immune system strong. Not only will this prevent colon cancer, but it will lower your risk of getting the disease. And exercise also helps improve immune surveillance. Exercise can help prevent polyps from turning into cancer. And if you’re suffering from inflammatory bowel disease, regular exercise may reduce the chances of developing the disease. Also, it’s important to see your doctor for a colonoscopy.
Several recent studies have demonstrated that liquid biopsies may improve the detection of colorectal cancer. These tests use DNA from tumor cells to measure response to treatment. This could help doctors predict whether a patient will respond to chemotherapy. It may also help monitor disease recurrence. Researchers have also reported that cancers shed DNA may help them identify patients who will benefit from chemotherapy. While this study is still in its early stages, it will be useful for guiding future research.
While much colorectal cancer research focuses on late-stage cancer, this study will help scientists understand how early-stage diseases interact with the immune system. The research may ultimately lead to a new therapeutic approach to fight cancer. The next step is to find new ways to prevent or treat this disease. MUSC Hollings Cancer Center researchers are aiming to develop immunotherapies that may help patients with colon cancer.
This study took place between 2009 and 2018. It was part of a stretch goal to reduce the number of deaths caused by colon cancer by half over the next 10 years. Researchers and physicians conducted literature reviews to identify evidence-based opportunities to treat the disease. During the study, the median follow-up was 6.8 months, although four patients had less than six months of treatment. It’s important to note, though, that the number of deaths due to colon cancer could increase if more research is undertaken.
Researchers are also developing stool sample tests to detect the genetic changes that are associated with colorectal cancer. The earlier that colorectal cancer is diagnosed, the better the chances of curing it. Moreover, the identification of genes associated with the disease could help patients avoid the side effects of chemotherapy. In addition, the findings of these tests may lead to new treatments without the side effects that plague patients today. That way, more people can benefit from these advances in the field.
A major colorectal cancer study called ColoCare has recently received $10 million to accelerate its research and innovation. This phase of the study will focus on developing new medical interventions based on earlier findings. It will involve more patients and result in insights into tailor-made treatments for patients with colorectal cancer. With these advances, researchers hope to find a cure for the disease by 2022. But first, they must find ways to diagnose the disease early.