In the United States, 151,030 adults will be diagnosed with colorectal cancer this year. Of those, 106,180 will be men and 52,140 will be women. Meanwhile, 44,850 new cases of rectal cancer are expected to appear this year. By 2020, it is expected that colorectal cancer will rank third in the world, with 1,148,515 new cases and 732,210 cases.
Stages of colorectal cancer are related to the extent of tumor invasion and spread, and the patient’s response to treatment. However, colorectal cancer stages are not always known until after surgery. Surgical removal of the tumor, lymph nodes and a small portion of normal colon on either side of it is usually performed. Occasionally, an ostomy may be necessary. Depending on the extent of cancer, this procedure may involve removing part of the colon or small intestine to create an opening to drain the bowel.
The stages of colon cancer are divided into three sub-stages. Stage IIA refers to a cancer that has not yet spread beyond the colon’s inner layer. At this stage, the disease is generally easy to treat, as the tumors have not spread to the lymph nodes. A patient’s prognosis depends on the stage of the cancer, and the treatments available for that stage are determined by the stage of the cancer.
The genetic makeup of colon cancer is not clear. Certain genetic factors such as age, gender, and race increase the risk. Women and African Americans have the highest incidence of colorectal cancer. While lifestyle factors may also contribute to the development of polyps, a high-fat diet and alcohol consumption are risk factors. The genetic makeup of the colon is an important factor in developing colorectal cancer. It is important to visit a doctor if you notice any changes or unexplained symptoms in your colon for two weeks.
As colon cancer can be cured if detected early, it is highly recommended that people over the age of 45 get checked by a health care provider. Eating plenty of fruits, vegetables, and wheat bran may reduce your risk, but not eliminate it. Additionally, avoiding smoking, excess calories, and exercising regularly are all preventative measures against colon cancer. It may take many years to develop, but if caught early, it can be successfully treated.
The symptoms of colon cancer are similar to those of other, less serious conditions. Symptoms may be related to other diseases, so it’s important to see a doctor if you’re experiencing these symptoms for more than a week. Your health care provider will assess your symptoms and determine whether you need to get a colon cancer screening. Because colon cancer can spread to different parts of the digestive tract, there are several different stages of treatment for the disease.
Colorectal cancer forms in the tissues of the colon and rectum. As a result, it spreads quickly to other parts of the body, including the lungs and bones. Unlike most other types of cancer, colon cancer begins as a non-cancerous polyp. These cells eventually grow into a cancerous mass. When left untreated, colon cancer may spread to other areas of the body. If left untreated, it could cause death.
In addition to the clinical symptoms, physicians also use imaging tests to detect cancerous cells. A CT scan helps doctors see inside the body and helps them determine if treatment is working. PET scans, for example, use a special dye that contains radioactive tracers. Finally, a CT scan helps determine the location and size of growths in the colon. Occasionally, a biopsy is performed to see if it’s cancerous. In either case, a laboratory will analyze the sample.
Oxaliplatin has become an important adjuvant therapy for patients with stage III Cca. After the MOSAIC trial, this drug has been approved for use in colon cancer patients. This phase III clinical trial evaluated the impact of adding oxaliplatin to bolus weekly FU/LV. Overall, patients with stage III Cca improved by more than two months and experienced minimal or no toxicity. This is a promising therapy that may be used for patients with oligo-metastasis.