A full-scale colonoscopy may not be enough to find the cancer. The doctor may decide to perform a partial colonectomy to remove the cancer and some nearby lymph nodes. The doctor may also recommend radiation therapy to help shrink the colon cancer. However, radiation therapy and chemotherapy are not the only ways to fight colon cancer. Chemotherapy can also reduce the risk of cancer recurrence and shrink a large tumor before surgery.
In stage II, the cancer has spread to nearby structures. At stage III, it has spread to nearby lymph nodes and may have metastasized. In stage IV, the cancer has spread to distant organs. The patient may die from the disease, or suffer from recurrence of the disease. In both stages, there are several treatments available. Although treatment is not 100% effective, there is hope. Many patients survive colon cancer after surgery and undergoing chemotherapy.
Radiation therapy uses high-energy x-rays to destroy cancer cells. It’s often used for rectal cancer, which tends to recur near the original location. The schedule for radiation therapy usually consists of a series of treatments over a period of time. Radiation therapy has a few side effects, including fatigue, skin reactions, and bowel blockage. Some cancers respond to radiation therapy, but others do not.
A textbook outcome can be defined as a patient who does not experience a significant adverse event within five years. Currently, a textbook outcome is achieved in about 59% of patients with a textbook outcome. A textbook outcome is defined as a patient whose healthcare team meets all important quality of care parameters. In a recent study conducted by Kolfschoten et al., quality assurance was shown to have a significant impact on outcomes, but more research is needed to fully investigate its effect on colon cancer survival.
While colon cancer remains the gold standard of treatment, recent advances have allowed better surgical management and a range of techniques for major resections of the colon. As a result, nationwide screening will increase the number of patients requiring curative treatment. While racial disparities in CRC mortality are well established, social economic status does not have a substantial effect on the chance of survival following curative surgery. There is still no cure for colon cancer, but newer treatments will likely increase survival rates.
One important study suggests that marital status plays an important role in improving the survival rates of elderly patients with M1b colon cancer. In the study, patients who are married and had health insurance had the best odds of surviving the disease. While unmarried patients and married patients had similar outcomes, being married was an independent prognostic factor. Although the data obtained in the study is limited, it does highlight the importance of social support for patients with colon cancer.
Avastin, a drug that shrinks tumors by choking off their blood vessels, has recently received FDA approval. If successful, Avastin may become a $2 billion dollar product. It would be the most profitable medicine to date. The news sent shares of Genentech rocketing 7%, adding $3.8 billion to its market value. This drug is the first of its kind. But it is not without its downsides.
Another treatment for colon cancer is Banxia Xiexin decoction (BXD). Its bioactive constituents were obtained from a public database. After mapping the bioactive components of BXD, a protein-protein interaction network was constructed. It was enriched with information from KEGG pathways. The study also involved xenograft nude mice to evaluate the effectiveness of BXD on colon cancer cells.
Compared to the traditional methods of detection, CT colonography improves the accuracy of evaluating colon tumors. CT colonography may also have a major impact on neoadjuvant therapy for colon cancer. MRI and endorectal ultrasound have been useful for staging colon cancer. This study was conducted by researchers at the University of Florida, San Francisco, and Stanford University. While the results are promising, they are also prone to bias.
Although the prognosis for colon cancer has improved in recent years, the treatment is still not completely effective. Hence, new drugs are needed to improve the treatment options. One such drug is Evo, which has anti-cancer activity. It may also affect BMP9 signaling and improve p53 activity. There are no clinical trials yet for Evo, but this new treatment option could help patients who have been diagnosed with colon cancer.